Hon. Rose A. Gottemoeller is currently the Deputy Secretary General of NATO. Gottemoeller assumed this position in October of 2016, after serving nearly five years as the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security at the U.S. Department of State. In this position Gottemoeller advised the Secretary of State on arms control, non-proliferation and political-military affairs, focusing on defense and security cooperation in Europe and Asia, peacekeeping policy and training, and weapons and mine abatement in post-conflict areas around the world. She acted in this position from 2012 to 2014, while concurrently serving as Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance (beginning in 2009). Notably, Gottemoeller served the chief U.S. negotiator of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) with the Russian Federation, which entered into force on 5 February, 2011 and is currently undegoing implementation. Prior to her work at the Department of State, Gottemoeller was a senior associate with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, with joint appointments to the Non-proliferation and Russia programs. She served as the Director of the Carnegie Moscow Center in 2006-2008. From 1998 to 2000, she served as US Deputy Under Secretary of Energy for Defense Nuclear Non-proliferation and before that as Assistant Secretary and Director for Non-proliferation and National Security at the U.S. Department of Energy where she was responsible for all non-proliferation cooperation with Russia and the Newly Independent States. Prior to her work at the Department of Energy, Gottemoeller served for three years as Deputy Director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. From 1993 to 1994, she served on the National Security Council staff as Director for Russia, Ukraine and Eurasia Affairs, assuming the responsibility for nuclear threat reduction in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Previously, she was an analyst at RAND and a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow. She has taught on Soviet military policy and Russian security at Georgetown University and is fluent in Russian. Gottemoeller was born in Columbus, Ohio. She received a B.S. from Georgetown University, and an M.A. from George Washington University. She is married to Raymond Arnaudo, a retired diplomat and expert on polar policy. They have two grown sons, Daniel and Paul, who work in information technology.